Decision Support Resources

at the

Department of Knowledge Technologies, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Definitions   —   Local Resources   —   External Resources


Decision Support (DS) is a wide area aimed at supporting people who are faced with difficult decisions. For this, it provides a rich collection of decision analysis, simulation, optimization and modeling techniques, which include hierarchical multi-attribute models, decision trees, influence diagrams and belief networks. Also, DS involves software tools such as decision support systems, group decision support and mediation systems, expert systems, databases and warehouses.

Decision Support Systems (DSS) are interactive computer-based systems intended to help decision makers utilize data and models to identify and solve problems and make decisions. The major characteristics of a DSS are:

Local Resources


The work at our Department of Knowledge Technologies has been primarily focused to the research and development of decision analysis models and tools, and their application in complex real-life decision problems. To help decision makers structure and decompose decision problems, we mainly use qualitative hierarchical decision models, which are characterised by using qualitative (symbolic) variables instead of quantitative (numeric) ones, and using if-then rules to aggregate the variables within the model. Our primary software tool is DEXi.



Model-Development Software



Further Reading

  1. Bohanec, M., Rajkovič, V. (1990): DEX: An expert system shell for decision support, Sistemica 1(1), 145-157.
  2. M. Bohanec, V. Rajkovič (1995): Večparametrski odločitveni modeli. Organizacija 28(7), 427-438.
  3. M. Bohanec, V. Rajkovič (1999): Multi-attribute decision modeling: Industrial applications of DEX, Informatica 23, 487-491.
  4. M. Bohanec (2001): What is decision support?, Proc. Information Society IS-2001: Data Mining and Decision Support in Action!, (eds. Škrjanc, M., Mladenić, D.), Ljubljana, 86-89.
  5. Jereb, E., Bohanec, M., Rajkovič, V. (2003): DEXi: Računalniški program za večparametrsko odločanje, Moderna organizacija, Kranj.
  6. Mladenić, D., Lavrač, N., Bohanec, M., Moyle, S. (eds.) (2003): Data mining and decision support: Integration and collaboration. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Chapters:
  7. Žnidaršič, M., Bohanec, M. (2004): Revision of qualitative multi-attribute decision models, DSS2004: The 2004 IFIP International Conference on Decision Support Systems: Decision Support in an Uncertain and Complex World (eds. R. Meredith, G. Shanks, D. Arnott, S. Carlson), 881-888.
  8. Bohanec, M., Messéan, A., Angevin, F., Žnidaršič, M. (2006): SMAC Advisor: A decision-support tool on coexistence of genetically-modified and conventional maize. Proc. Information Society IS 2006, Ljubljana, 9-12.
  9. Bohanec, M. (2007): DEXiTree: A program for pretty drawing of trees. Proc. Information Society IS 2007, Ljubljana, 8-11.
  10. Taškova, K., Stojanova, D., Bohanec, M., Džeroski, S. (2007): A qualitative decision-support model for evaluating researchers. Informatica 31(4), 479-486.
  11. Omerčević, D., Zupančič, M., Bohanec, M., Kastelic, T. (2008): Intelligent response to highway traffic situations and road incidents. Proc. TRA 2008, Transport Research Arena Europe 2008, 21-24 April 2008, Ljubljana, 1-6.
  12. Žnidaršič, M., Bohanec, M., Lavrač, N., Cestnik, B. (2009): Project self-evaluation methodology: The Healthreats project case study. Proc. Information Society IS 2009, Ljubljana, 85-88, 2009.
  13. Bohanec, M. (2009): Računalnik in odločanje: Odločitveni modeli in sistemi za podporo pri odločanju. Proc. Information Society IS 2009, Ljubljana, 350-353, 2009.
  14. Žnidaršič, M., Bohanec, M., Lavrač, N., Cestnik, B. (2009): Project self-evaluation methodology: The Healthreats project case study. Proc. Information Society IS 2009, Ljubljana, 85-88.
  15. Bohanec, M. (2009): Decision making: A computer-science and information-technology viewpoint. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 7(2), 22-37. [Accessible from, file indecs_7_2.pdf]
  16. Bohanec, M., Žnidaršič, M. (2010): Izkušnje z večparametrskimi odločitvenimi modeli pri podpori odločanja o gensko spremenjenih organizmih. DAES 2010: Sodobni izzivi menedžmenta v agroživilstvu (ur. C. Rozman, S. Kavčič), Pivola, 18.-19.3.2010, 29-37, 2010.
  17. Žnidaršič, M. Bohanec, M. (2010): Handling uncertainty in DEX methodology. URPDM 2010: Uncertainty and robustness in planning and decision making (eds. C.H. Antunes, D.R. Insua, L.C. Dias), Proceedings of the 25th Mini-EURO Conference, University of Coimbra - Portugal.
  18. Bohanec, M. (2012): Odločanje in modeli. DMFA - založništvo, 1. ponatis. [O knjigi...]
  19. Marinič, S., Bohanec, M. (2012): Večparametrsko vrednotenje variant v odvisnosti od konteksta: Model za vrednotenje strešnih kritin. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference Information Society IS 2012, 8.-12.10.2012, Ljubljana, 76-79.
  20. Bohanec, M., Rajkovič, V., Bratko, I., Zupan, B., Žnidaršič, M. (2013): DEX methodology: Three decades of qualitative multi-attribute modelling. Informatica 37, 49-54.
  21. Bohanec, M., Aprile, G., Costante, M., Foti, M., Trdin, N. (2013): Decision support model for the assessment of bank reputational risk. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Information Society IS 2013, 7.-11.10.2013, Ljubljana, 11-14.
  22. Trdin, N., Bohanec, M., Janža, M. (2013): Decision support system for management of water sources. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Information Society IS 2013, 7.-11.10.2013, Ljubljana, 118-121.
  23. Stream on "Qualitative Multiple Criteria Decision Making". IFORS 2014, 20th Conference of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies, Barcelona, Spain, 13.-16.7.2014.
  24. Mihelčić, M., Bohanec, M. (2014): Approximating DEX utility functions with methods UTA and ACUTA. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference Information Society IS 2014, Volume A, 7.-8.10.2014, Ljubljana, 62-65.
  25. Mileva Boshkoska, B., Bohanec, M., Boškoski, P., Juričić, Đ. (2015): Copula-based decision support system for quality ranking in the manufacturing of electronically commutated motors. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing 26, 281-293, doi: 10.1007/s10845-013-0781-7.
  26. Bohanec, M., Delibašić, B. (2015): Data-mining and expert models for predicting injury risk in ski resorts. Decision Support Systems V - Big Data Analytics for Decision Making, First International Conference ICDSST 2015, Belgrade, Serbia, May 27-29, 2015, Springer, 46-60.
  27. Craheix, D., Bergez, J.-E., Angevin, F., Bockstaller, C., Bohanec, M., Colomb, B., Doré, T., Fortino, G., Guichard, L., Pelzer, E., Méssean, A., Reau, R., Sadok, W. (2015): Guidelines to design models assessing agricultural sustainability, based upon feedbacks from the DEXi decision support system, Agronomy for sustainable development 35(4), 1431-1447, doi: 10.1007/s13593-015-0315-0.
  28. Rozman, Č., Pažek, K., Pavlovič, V., Bohanec, M., Pavlovič, M. (2015): Application of multi criteria DEX model in hop breeding. SOR-2015: 13th International Symposium on Operational Research in Slovenia, Bled, Slovenia, September 23-25, 2015 (eds. Zadnik Stirn, L., et al.), Ljubljana: Slovenian Society Informatika, Section for Operational Research, 40-44.
  29. Kontić, B., Bohanec, M., Kontić, D., Trdin, N., Matko, M. (2015): Improving appraisal of sustainability of energy options - A view from Slovenia, Energy Policy 90, 154-171.
  30. Damij, N., Boškoski, P., Bohanec, M., Mileva-Boshkoska, B. (2016): Ranking of business process simulation software tools with DEX/QQ hierarchical decision model, PloS one 11(2), 0148391-1-0148391-16.
  31. Ravnikar, T., Bohanec, M., Muri, G. (2016): Monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities in mountain lakes: A case of the Fifth Triglav Lake in the Julian Alps Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188(4), 1-17.
  32. Gatsios, D., Rigas, G., Miljković, D., Koroušić-Seljak, B., Bohanec, M., Arredondo, M.S., Antonini, A., Konitsiotis, S., Fotiadis, D.I. (2016): Mhealth platform for Parkinson's disease management. CBHI 2016, 18th International Conference on Biomedicine and Health Informatics, February 25-26, Dubai, UAE.
  33. Bohanec, M., Mileva-Boshkoska, B., Prins, T.W., Kok, E. (2016): SIGMO: A decision support system for identification of genetically modified food or feed products. Food Control, 71, 168-177.
  34. Mihelčić, M., Bohanec, M. (2016): Approximating incompletely defined utility functions of qualitative multi-criteria modeling method DEX. Central European Journal of Operations Research, 1-23.
  35. Bohanec, M., Trdin, N., Kontić, B. (2016): A qualitative multi-criteria modelling approach to the assessment of electric energy production technologies in Slovenia. Central European Journal of Operations Research, 1-15.
  36. Trdin, N., Bohanec, M. (2017): Extending the multi-criteria decision making method DEX with numeric attributes, value distributions and relational models. Central European Journal of Operations Research, 1-24.
  37. Dobnik, D., Gruden, K., Žel, J., Bertheau, Y., Holst-Jensen, A., Bohanec, M.: Decision support for the comparative evaluation and selection of analytical methods: Detection of genetically modified organisms as an example. Food Analytical Methods, 2018.
  38. Bohanec, M., Miljković, D., Valmarska, A., Mileva Boshkoska, B., Gasparoli, E., Gentile, G., Koutsikos, K., Marcante, A., Antonini, A., Gatsios, D., Rigas, F., Fotiadis, D.I., Tsiouris, K.M., Konitsiotis, S.: A decision support system for Parkinson disease management: Expert models for suggesting medication change. Journal of Decision Systems 27, 164-172, 2018.
  39. Bohanec, M.: DEXi: Program for Multi-Attribute Decision Making, User's Manual, Version 5.04. IJS Report DP-13100, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, 2020.
    [Also available: a printer-friendly version without hyperlinks.]
  40. Mileva Boshkoska, B., Miljković, D., Valmarska, A., Gatsios, D., Rigas, G., Konitsiotis, S., Tsiouris, K.M., Fotiadis, D.I., Bohanec, M.: Decision support for medication change of Parkinsonʼs disease patients. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 35 p., 2020.
  41. Bohanec, M., Vrbanić, I., Bašić, I., Debelak, K., Štrubelj, L.: A decision-support approach to severe accident management in nuclear power plants. Journal of Decision Systems, 13 p., 2020.
  42. Deguine, J.-P., Robin, M.-H., Camilo Corrales, D., Vedy-Zecchini, M.-A., Doizy, A., Chiroleu, F., Quesnel, G., Païtard, I., Bohanec, M., Aubertot, J.-N.: Qualitative modeling of fruit fly injuries on chayote in Réunion: Development and transfer to users. Crop protection 139, 105367-1-105367-11, 2021.
  43. Luštrek, M., Bohanec, M., Cavero Barca, C., Ciancarelli, M.C., Clays, E., Dawodu, A.A., Derboven, J., De Smedt, D., Dovgan, E., Lampe, J., Marino, F., Mlakar, M., Pioggia, G., Puddu, P.E., Rodríguez, J.M., Schiariti, M., Slapničar, G., Slegers, K., Tartarisco, G., Valič, J., Vodopija, A.: A personal health system for self-management of congestive heart failure (HeartMan): Development, technical evaluation, and proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial. JMIR medical informatics 9(2), 1-15}, 2021.
  44. Lacroix, O., Aubertot, J.N., Bohanec, M., Cordeau, S., Camilo Corrales, D., Robin, M.-H.: IPSIM-Cirsium, a qualitative expert-based model to predict infestations of Cirsium arvense. Frontiers in agronomy 3, 655383-1-655383-16, 2021.

External Resources

Starting Points and Repositories



Software Lists


Collaborating Institutions and Organisations

Maintained by Marko Bohanec. Comments to

Last update: 2021-04-29